Yamaha Pro Audio | News | Micro Tutorial
Background

YAMAHA AUDIO TECHNOLOGY

MICRO TUTORIAL

Loudspeaker Power specifications.

Loudspeaker Power specifications.

Loudspeaker drivers convert electrical power into acoustic power by means of an electro-magnetic process: a coil hovers in a magnetic field, generated by a fixed magnet, and an electric alternating current through the coil makes it move up and down. For low-power loudspeaker drivers, ‘ferro-magnetic’ materials are used for the magnet; for more powerful loudspeakers, scarcer - and therefore more expensive - Neodymium magnets are used. In both cases, the moving coil is attached to a cone made of paper or plastic, which transmits pressure waves into the air. A wooden or plastic cabinet is built around the driver to optimise the electric to acoustic power conversion process and to shape the response in frequency range and dispersion.

read more

Line arrays

Line arrays

Sound reinforcement systems use components that radiate air pressure waves to the audience, components which we know as ‘loudspeakers’. Most applications use the so called ‘point source’ type; loudspeakers constituting one or more drivers mounted in a cabinet that radiates - or disperses - waves as much as possible to the front of the cabinet. In practice however, the dispersion pattern is usually broad for low frequencies, narrowing towards high frequencies. This dispersion behaviour is not ideal, having three disadvantages:

read more

ISM wireless microphones

ISM wireless microphones

Most audio connections in live sound applications and use cables to carry audio signals - analogue, digital or networked - from sound sources to stage boxes, from stage boxes to mixers and from mixers to power amplifiers. However, one category of sound source is often connected through radio waves: microphones. Although a cable is the most secure way to connect a microphone, with the highest audio quality, there’s a practical reason to use radio: freedom of movement of the performer. This also goes for worn musical instruments, such as guitars.

read more

Networked Audio

Networked Audio

Modern audio network protocols are often based on gigabit Ethernet technology, supporting channel counts that we couldn’t dream of 20 years ago. Even a small-scale network is capable of transporting thousands of channels. Because of the full addressing that is inherent to the Ethernet protocol, the bonus is that the network acts as a routing matrix with millions of patch points. There are multiple protocols available, all supporting 24-bit audio streams, some even 32 bits, and high resolution sample rates - so audio quality is not an issue. Timing is assured as all Ethernet protocols use the Precision Time and Quality of Service Protocols, while software and hardware phase-locked loop (PLL) technology has evolved to reduce transport jitter to inaudible levels.

read more

Ethernet

Ethernet

Back in the seventies the Palo Alto Research Center in California, USA (www.parc.com) developed some nifty computer technology such as the mouse, the laser printer and computer networks. From the first versions of networks such as Aloha-Net and ARPA-Net the Internet has evolved. Robert Metcalfe, first working at PARC and later founding his own company 3COM, developed a practical networking standard for use in offices called Ethernet. More than 40 years later the whole world is using this standard to build information systems, and all personal computers, smart phones, tablets and also many professional audio products sold today have some form of Ethernet port built in. The Ethernet protocol is standardized as 802.3 by the IEEE standards organization.

read more

The benefit of standards in the audio industry

The benefit of standards in the audio industry

Standards have been part of our civilisation ever since human life evolved on Earth. One of the most obvious examples is language; the fact that a group of human beings can exchange information with each other relies completely on the concept that all individuals within the group share the same language. Countries worldwide institutionalised their languages in their educational systems, maintaining standards on syntax and vocabulary, teaching students in schools. Often, languages of neighbouring countries are also included in the school curriculum to ensure cross-country compatibility of communication.

read more

The six rules of audio network troubleshooting

The six rules of audio network troubleshooting

Manufacturers of audio networking equipment often promise a ‘plug and play’, hassle-free user experience, with a ‘sky’s the limit’ channel capacity. If you keep things simple, in most cases it’s true. Of course, once you start to make things more complex - for example by combining multiple brands and product types in a large distributed system - things start to get more complicated. Still, when systems are designed with care and enough forethought, it’s entirely possible to make things work - but the paradigm changes from ‘plug and play’ to ‘think, plug and play’.

read more